Course: Biomechanics

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Course title Biomechanics
Course code KBF/BIOM
Organizational form of instruction Lecture + Exercise
Level of course Bachelor
Year of study not specified
Semester Summer
Number of ECTS credits 4
Language of instruction Czech
Status of course Compulsory, Compulsory-optional, Optional
Form of instruction Face-to-face
Work placements This is not an internship
Recommended optional programme components None
Lecturer(s)
  • Švec Jan, RNDr. Ph.D.
Course content
- Fundaments of biomechanics, segmentation of human body, human anatomy, basic anatomical position, main planes and axes of human body, human skeleton, structure of the spine and skoliosis - Centre of gravity in biomechanics, centres of gravity of body segments, centre of gravity of the complex human body, methods for determining the centres of gravity on human body, moments of inertia of the segments and of the body, human kinematics and dynamics, movement analysis, application in sports and health sciences - Typical mechanical properties of biological tissues: viscoelasticity, viscoelasticity, non-homogenity, anisotropy, adaptability, stress-strain relationship (Hooke?s law, elasticity modulus, yield point, rupture point) - Bones, structure of bones, elastic and plastic deformation of bones, influence of the external environment on bones (Wolff?s law), fatique-caused fractures (stress vs. numer of repetitions), bone aging - Tendons and ligaments, elastin and collagen fibres, deformation of the fibres, consequences of viscoelasticity ? 2 efffects in tendons and ligaments ? stress relaxation and creep - Cartillages, three kinds of cartillages, their function, structure and properties, stress relaxation and creep in cartillages - Joints, different movements in joints, synovial joint, synovial fluid - Musclural system in humans, 3 types of muscles, muscle redundancy, structure of the striated muscle, muscle contraction, motor unit, twitch and tetanus, types of muscle fibers (motor units), 2 basic mechanisms for increasing muscle tension, combination of spatial and temporal recruitment for increasing muscle tension (Henneman?s size principle), Hill?s 3-element model - Neuron: 3 types of neurons and their involvement in a reflex arc, neuron morphology, transmission of nerve action potential to muscle (neuromuscular junction), extrafusal and intrafusal muscle fibres, mechanoreceptors and their feedback function (muscle spindles ? their structure and function, patellar reflex, the Golgi apparatus, other mechanoreceptors) - Respiratory biomechanics, anatomy and physiology of respiratory muscles, inspiration, expiration, vital capacity - Voice biomechanics, anatomy of vocal apparatus, source-filter theory, vocal fold structure, biomechanics of vocal fold vibration, vocal tract, vocal tract resonances ? formants, vowels, voice range - Hearing biomechanics, hearing range, theories of hearing, anatomy of hearing apparatus, inner and outer hair cells, air conduction and bone conduction, basics of audiology - Forensic biomechanics

Learning activities and teaching methods
Lecture
  • Homework for Teaching - 10 hours per semester
  • Attendace - 36 hours per semester
  • Preparation for the Exam - 24 hours per semester
Learning outcomes
Obtaining basic knowledge in the field of biomechanics with focus on biomechanics of voice and hearing and some information on sports and forensic biomechanics.
Knowledge Define the main ideas and conceptions of the subject, describe the main approaches of the studied topics, recall the theoretical knowledge for solution of model problems.
Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of mechanics

Assessment methods and criteria
Mark

- passing the oral exam - completing homeworks
Recommended literature
  • Patobiomechanika a patokinesiologie: KOMPENDIUM. (available online at http://biomech.ftvs.muni.cz/pbpk/kompendium/index.php).
  • Selected journal publications.
  • Janura, M. (2003). Úvod do biomechaniky pohybového systému člověka. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci.
  • MRÁZKOVÁ, E.; MRÁZEK, J.; LINDOVSKÁ, M. (2006). Základy audiologie a objektivní audiometrie. Medicínské a sociální aspekty sluchových vad.. Ostrava: Zdravotně sociální fakulta OU.
  • Švec, J. (1996). Studium mechanicko-akustických vlastností lidského hlasu. PřF UP Olomouc.
  • Švec, J.G. (2014). Biomechanika (soubor přednáškových materiálů). KBF Př.F. Olomouc.


Study plans that include the course
Faculty Study plan (Version) Branch of study Category Recommended year of study Recommended semester
Faculty of Science Molecular Biophysics (2015) Physics courses 2 Summer
Faculty of Science Biophysics (2015) Physics courses 1 Summer
Faculty of Science Experimental Biology (2016) Biology courses 2 Summer