Lecturer(s)


Číhalová Martina, PhDr. Ph.D.

Course content

The main principles of scientific thinking:  the principle of causality,  causality vs. coincidence  applications of the probability theory  applications of statistical methods  justification of hypothesis  experimental method: main principles and its limitation. Reasoning fallacies:  causality fallacies,  fallacies in applications of statistical methods  fallacies in applications of the probability theory Formal theories:  Pean's arithmetic  Theories of relations The resolution method and its application on theorems inferring from the axioms of formal theory Completeness and correctness of logical calculus Specifications of completeness vs. incompleteness of formal theory

Learning activities and teaching methods

Dialogic Lecture (Discussion, Dialog, Brainstorming)

Learning outcomes

Get an overview of the given topic.
Students will be able to characterize the main principles of scientific thinking. They will be able to assess scientific character of theory via the necessary conditions which a theory must meet to be considered scientific. Further, they will be able to explain and detect some of the fallacies that can be made during the scientific hypothesis formation. They will obtain an elementary idea of formal theories and be able to infer theorems from axioms of formal theory using the resolution method.

Prerequisites

Studying do not depend on attending another subject.

Assessment methods and criteria

Mark
Three nonattendance are allowed, students must succesfully pass the preliminary and exam test.

Recommended literature


Beebee, H., Hitchcock, Ch., Menzies, P. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford.

Douglas N. Walton. (1989). Informal Logic, A Handbook for Critical Argumentation..

Duží, M. Logika pro informatiky (a příbuzné obory).

Fajkus, B. (2005). Filosofie a metodologie vědy.
